Updated as of Jan. 18 to reflect a response to a new question on retirement and additional information about coverage under the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP).Â
As the partial government shutdown drags on and surpasses the longest lapse in history, agencies and their employees face a revolving door of new questions about the impact on their pay, benefits, taxes, retirement and leave banks.
The timing and length of this particular government shutdown has pushed agencies into unprecedented territory, and in some cases, itâ€™s creating the need for answers to questions that havenâ€™t been addressed before.
Federal News Network is soliciting your questions about your pay, benefits, retirement and other general topics during the government shutdown.
Direct your questions to the Federal News Network Facebook page or Twitter account, or via our website comments. We will do our best to answer as many as we can. We will also update this page as more information from the Office of Personnel Management, Office of Management and Budget and individual agencies becomes available.
We will continually update this page as we receive more information and reader questions.Â New questions and answers will appear at the top of the page and will be indicated as additional FAQs as we receive them.
Yes, federal employees who submitted their retirement application to their agencies before the shutdown began with an effective date during the shutdown, are retired.
Whether their paperwork has been processed, however, is a different story, and it depends on whether the staff at your agencyâ€™s payroll office is furloughed. If they are, processing of your retirement could be delayed.
Employees who retired during the shutdown wonâ€™t need to return to work when the shutdown ends, according to the National Active and Retired Federal Employee Association (NARFE). They are retired, even if their agencies or OPM havenâ€™t finished processing their paperwork.
New retirees should receive their first annuity payments about two-to-four weeks after OPM has received all materials it needs to accurately adjudicate and process an employeeâ€™s retirement, NARFE said.
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It may be more difficult for employees to retire during the government shutdown who havenâ€™t yet submitted any paperwork to their agencies. Again, some agencies may have staff working during the shutdown who can process retirement applications. Some may not.
OPM Retirement Services is still working during the government shutdown. But it canâ€™t process your retirement application until your agency has completed its part of the process.
In addition, employees will need to return federal property, including their personal identity verification (PIV) card, back to their agencies.
The Department of Housing and Urban Development, for example, has a specific message on its website describing how employees can separate from the agency. HUD instructs employees to email specific contacts for directions.
Extended furloughs, like this one, will likely impact the timing of General Schedule step increases that were already approved prior to the shutdown, according to OPM guidance.
Agencies canâ€™t, however, deny or delay step increases because of a lack of funds.
After past shutdowns, OPM advised agencies to make a within-grade step increase effective on the day the increase was originally due. Therefore, if you were scheduled to receive a within-grade increase on Jan. 5, as an example, your retroactive back pay would reflect the increase as of Jan. 5.
Yes. President Donald Trump signed the Government Employee Fair Treatment Act into law on Jan. 16. It ensures that both furloughed and excepted federal employees receive back pay after the government shutdown ends. It also specifies that federal payroll providers begin to process checks as soon as the lapse in appropriations ends, regardless of the next scheduled pay date.
By law, federal employees canâ€™t receive any pay for work done during a government shutdown until the lapse in appropriations ends.
Excepted employees who are required to work during a shutdown will eventually get paid, but not until after the shutdown ends. Generally speaking, non-excepted employees who are furloughed arenâ€™t guaranteed pay unless Congress and the President have specifically authorized it.Â
As mentioned earlier, the President has already authorized back pay for federal employees after this shutdown ends.
Federal contractors, however, are in a different boat. Congress has no real mechanism to ensure the federal contracting community gets paid during a government shutdown. Individual companies can decide to pay their contractor-employees when the shutdown ends, but again, thereâ€™s no guarantee.
A group of Senate Democrats has introduced legislation that would ensure low-wage federal contractors receive back pay during this shutdown. But no similar legislation has ever cleared Congress before.
At this point, a definitive or ballpark estimate is tough to approximate. The legislation that Trump signed into law specifies that payroll providers work as quickly as possible to send out checks, regardless of the next scheduled pay period.
OPM has issued more specific guidance on this question in the days following past government shutdowns. The agency will likely provide more details soon after the current lapse ends.
We wonâ€™t know for sure until the shutdown ends and OPM issues more detailed guidance.
But after the 16-day government shutdown in 2013, most federal employees received back pay as a lump sum. Federal employee unions expect that whenever this shutdown ends, furloughed and excepted employees would receive a lump sum payment, rather than a series of installments.
Again, the back pay legislation that Trump signed on Jan. 16 instructs payroll providers to process checks as quickly as possible, regardless of the next scheduled pay period.
OPM will likely issue specific guidance with more detail after the lapse in appropriations ends. But history can give us an indication of what that guidance will likely say.
According to OPM guidance issued after the 1995-1996 government shutdown, excepted and furloughed federal employees were to be compensated â€śas though they had performed work for the agency during all periods of regularly scheduled duty,â€ť the agency said. â€śTherefore, employees are entitled to receive their rate of basic pay for all periods of time during which they would have been in a pay status but for the lapse in appropriations.â€ť
This guidance suggests that for employees who worked without pay or were furloughed on days in 2018, back pay for those days would count as 2018 taxable income. The same mentality, in theory, may apply for work or furlough days in 2019.
Though the 1995-1996 government shutdown was the second-longest lapse in history, agencies reopened on Jan. 6, leaving payroll providers enough time to issue W-2s denoting an employeeâ€™s entire income for 1996.
But without a clear end in sight to this current government shutdown, we canâ€™t say for sure that payroll providers will be able to provide a complete picture of an employeeâ€™s 2018 income in time for the release of his or her W-2.
Federal News Network will update this response when more information becomes available.
Because all paid leave is canceled during a government shutdown, employees who had scheduled to take annual leave during the holidays had to forfeit the time.
But these circumstances put some employees in a tricky situation. Federal employees generally can carry some leave with them from year to year, as long as it doesnâ€™t exceed the annual leave ceiling. But many employees specifically save their â€śuse-or-loseâ€ť leave for the end of the year during the holidays.
For some, the government shutdown meant certain excepted employees not only had to cancel their leave and come into work but also exceed the annual leave ceiling.
The 2018 leave year ended on Jan. 5, 2019 for employees on the standard biweekly pay period cycle. Agencies can restore lost-leave scheduled before Jan. 5, as long as employees had requested to take that leave in writing before Nov. 24, 2018, according to OPM.
As long as this partial government shutdown continues, federal employees canâ€™t substitute annual leave for a furlough. The Antideficiency Act, which essentially bars government from spending money it doesnâ€™t have, prohibits employees from taking paid time off.
Paid leave of any kind, including annual, sick and compensatory time off, is canceled during a government shutdown.
Though the back pay legislation that Trump signed Jan. 16 clarifies that excepted employees should be able to take time off, they wonâ€™t be paid for that time until the shutdown ends.Â
Excepted employees who need to take a sick day or a day off during the shutdown will be placed in â€śsituational furlough status.â€ť Excepted employees put in â€śsituational furlough statusâ€ť arenâ€™t guaranteed back pay for the time off, unless legislation authorizes it. Again, Trump has signed this legislation into law, so excepted employees would be paid regardless.
Federal employment attorneys, however, urge caution for employees who call out sick during a government shutdown. Excepted employees may be asked to provide a doctorâ€™s note if theyâ€™re out sick for an extended period of time. Employees who donâ€™t communicate with their agencies about their whereabouts or provide a reason for their absence could be considered absent without leave, or AWOL.
Agencies could take disciplinary action in this situation, said Ricardo Pitts-Wiley, a partner with the Federal Practice Group.
Several readers, however, have said theyâ€™re hearing mixed messages from their agencies as to whether they will charge their employeesâ€™ leave banks after the fact once the shutdown ends. OPM furlough guidance is silent on this specific issue. We will update this response when we have a clear answer.
Furloughed employees wonâ€™t accrue annual and sick leave during a shutdown once theyâ€™ve reached non-pay status for 80 hours, according to OPM guidance. Congress and the President have authorized a retroactive accrual of leave in the Jan. 16 back pay bill.
Excepted employees will continue to accrue leave, but again, workers canâ€™t take it until the shutdown ends.
Furloughed federal employees are eligible to apply for unemployment benefits, but excepted employees working on a full-time basis generally arenâ€™t eligible, according to OPM.
Furloughed employees, however, will be required to pay back any unemployment benefits they received once the shutdown ends and federal payroll providers begin to process retroactive paychecks.
Employeesâ€™ eligibility for unemployment varies by state. In most circumstances, the state where an employeeâ€™s official duty station is located is the state that will determine a workerâ€™s unemployment eligibility in the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees Program. State unemployment insurance agencies administer this program on behalf of the federal government.
Federal employees who are eligible can apply for unemployment benefits on or after the first day of their furlough.
To file an unemployment claim, federal employees should first contact the state where they work to get started, OPM said. Some states may require employees to wait a week after filing a claim before they receive a payment. In general, most states will issue benefits within 14-to-21 days after an employee filed a claim, according to OPM.
Each state has different requirements that federal employees must meet first to be eligible.
Most states pay a maximum of 26 weeks of regular benefits, according to OPM, but the benefits themselves vary depending on location.
The General Services Administration has a checklist of documents that furloughed federal employees should find before applying for unemployment benefits.
A spokesman for the Agriculture Department said the National Finance Center will begin to send out W-2s to employees by Jan. 25. The mailing process will continue through Jan. 31.
NFC will process and distribute some 705,000 W-2s, according to a message on the USDA website. Most will be available on employee personal pages near the end of January, but about 9,000 of them will be suspended from the electronic site, according to USDA. NFC will slowly release those W-2s from suspense and will mail and issue them electronically.
Any NFC client who hasnâ€™t received a W-2 by Feb. 4 should contact the NFC reporting center.
The General Services Administration Payroll Service Branch will make W-2s available for their clients no later than Jan. 31, 2019, according to GSA.
The Interior Business Center didnâ€™t immediately respond to questions about the status of W-2s during the government shutdown.
Your coverage under the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) will continue during the government shutdown. Enrollment in FEHBP continues for up to one year in non-pay status.
Your contributions toward your health premiums will accumulate. Theyâ€™ll be withheld until the government reopens and impacted employees receive back pay.
The government will continue to make its FEHBP contributions even during this shutdown, because OPM uses the Federal Employees Health Benefits Fund to make payments.
For participants who made changes to their health insurance during open season, those changes should have gone into effect Jan. 1 regardless of the current shutdown.
The National Active and Retired Federal Employees (NARFE) Association has suggested FEHBP participants check with their new carriers to make sure theyâ€™re covered.
Blue Cross Blue Shield, one of the most popular insurance options for participants in the FEHBP, reminded members their coverage will continue during the government shutdown.
â€śThe BCBS Federal Employee Program continues to process claims and reimburse doctors, hospitals, and other health care providers,â€ť William Breskin, senior vice president of government programs for BCBS Association, said Jan. 18 in a statement. â€śEligible FEP members can also contact their local Blue Cross and Blue Shield company if they have a qualifying life event, such as the birth of a baby, that allows them to change their coverage or add eligible individuals to their policy.â€ť
New enrollments or changes to enrollment because of a qualifying life event generally wonâ€™t go into effect until an employees returns to pay status. The birth or addition of a child is the exception, according to OPM.
Coverage under the Federal Federal Employees Dental and Vision Program (FEDVIP) will continue during the shutdown.
But if the shutdown continues for two consecutive pay periods, BENEFEDS will begin to directly bill enrollees for premium payments. FEDVIP participants must pay those bills if they want their coverage to continue.
If the shutdown lasts for less than two consecutive pay periods, premiums will accumulate and will be withheld later until employees go back to work.
Coverage under the Federal Employeesâ€™ Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) continues for up to 12 months in non-pay status. FEGLI only collects premiums for pay periods when enrollees receive pay.
Coverage under the Federal Long Term Care Insurance Program continues during the shutdown. But if Long-Term Care Partners doesnâ€™t receive premiums for three consecutive pay periods, it will begin to directly bill participants.
Payroll deductions to your flexible spending account (FSAFEDS) will stop when you donâ€™t receive a paycheck. Youâ€™re still enrolled in FSAFEDS, but you canâ€™t be reimbursed for eligible health care claims until you return to pay-status.
â€śPayroll deductions will be subsequently collected to match your annual election amount,â€ť OPM guidance reads.â€ťEligible dependent care expenses incurred during the lapse in appropriations may be reimbursed up to whatever balance is in your dependent care accountâ€”as long as the expense incurred allows you (or your spouse, if married) to work, look for work, or attend school full-time.â€ťÂ
Employees impacted by the shutdown arenâ€™t making contributions toward their retirement because theyâ€™re not getting paid.
The shutdown wonâ€™t have an impact on an employeeâ€™s retirement-creditable service or high-3 average pay unless the lapse lasts for more than six months, according to OPM.
Typically, the Thrift Savings Plan requires agencies and military services to send documentation that an employee has entered â€śnon-payâ€ť status in order to suspend loan payments and prevent those loans from going into default.
During this shutdown, the TSP isnâ€™t requiring a notice.
â€śTheÂ TSP does not need documentation of your furlough at this time,â€ť according to a message on the planâ€™s website.Â â€śIf your loan payments were up to date prior to the furlough, missing one or two payments will not cause your loan to be in default.â€ť
Federal employees canâ€™t make allotments during the shutdown because theyâ€™re not getting paid. OPM suggests employees impacted by the shutdown review allotments and decide whether theyâ€™ll need to make alternative arrangements to make loan or other payments.
The government shutdown has impacted TRICARE health plans and dental program allotments made on or after Jan. 1, 2019, the Coast Guard said.
TRICARE canâ€™t process these payments from retirees of the Coast Guard, U.S. Public Health Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration commissioned corps.
No one will disenrolled for non-payment, the Coast Guard said. TRICARE will continue to process claims and coverage will continue during the shutdown.